Proteogenomic analysis in an early onset diffuse gastric cancer patient revealed alterations in PIK3R1, TP53, SMAD4 and a potential role of the PI3K-AKT and EGFR pathways: a case report
Early-onset gastric cancers (EOGC) are poor prognosis hard-to treat malignancies that affect young individuals (<45 years old).
Herein we describe the case of a 26-year-old female EOGC patient that initially displayed stable disease after first-line CAPOX plus immunotherapy. However, patient eventually developed progressive disease and was consecutively switched to paclitaxel plus ramucirumab, and palliative irinotecan. In search for therapeutic alternatives a proteo-genomic analysis was performed in a tissue biopsy taken after the first progression. Our analyses found a total of 18 somatic mutations, including TP53 and PIK3R1, and a previously unreported germline alteration in the tumor suppressor SMAD4. Also, our proteomic análisis found 62 proteins previously documented as “enriched in stomach cancer” and AKT/mTOR and EGFR as pathways with therapeutic potential. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of AKT/mTOR inhibitors or EGFR targeted therapies could not be assessed.
As explained above EOGC is a growing health concern that affects young individuals. Furthermore, the reported case displayed a poor response to standard therapy including checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapy despite the presence of biomarkers that predict a favorable outcome. Future studies should adopt alternative approaches to find novel, more effective therapies.
Proteogenomics; early onset gastric cancer; SMAD4; case report.